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PLS-3: Preschool Language Scale-3

Zimmerman, I. L., Steiner, V. G., & Pond, R. E. (1992). PLS-3: Preschool Language Scale-3. San Antonio, TX : The Psychological Corporation.

This standardized and norm referenced evaluation tool is used to assess receptive and expressive language skills in infants and young children (2 weeks through 6 years, 11 months of age). It also assesses behaviors considered to be language precursors. The tool directly screens children and interviews caregivers. The test is available in English and Spanish.

The auditory comprehension subscale is used to evaluate the child's receptive language skills in the areas of attention; semantics (context) - vocabulary and concepts; structure (form) - morphology and syntax; and integrative thinking skills. The expressive communication subscale is used to assess expressive language in the areas of vocal development; social communication; semantics (content) -- vocabulary and concepts; structure (form) -- morphology and syntax; and integrative thinking skills. It may also be used with older children functioning developmentally in the young children's age range. It is not appropriate for determining if a child is gifted.

There are three supplemental, optional measures: Articulation Screener; Language Sample Checklist; and Family Information and Suggestions Form. The guidelines for modifying administration for children with severe developmental delays, severe physical impairments, and hearing impairments are provided in the manual.

The standardization sample included 1,200 children, ages 2 weeks to 6 years, 11 months, from the United States. Within each age level, female and male each are 50% of the sample. The sample was stratified by parent education level, geographic region, and race, in order to represent the U.S. population. Examiners must have knowledge of test administration and scoring interpretation, be sensitive to the needs of the child being evaluated, know the instrument and adhere to administration procedures, and record and score responses correctly.

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